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O corpo docente da Faculdade de Medicina publicou nos últimos dois anos mais de cento e cinquenta artigos cientificos em revistas internacionais conceituadas

Relaunch of the official community health worker programme in Mozambique: is there a sustainable basis for iCCM policy?

Chilundo B , Cliff J , Mariano A , (2015), Health Policy Plan, 30(Suppl 2), ii54–ii64

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BACKGROUND: In Mozambique, integrated community case management (iCCM) of diarrhoea, malaria and pneumonia is embedded in the national community health worker (CHW) programme, mainstreaming it into government policy and service delivery. Since its inception in 1978, the CHW programme has functioned unevenly, was suspended in 1989, but relaunched in 2010. To assess the long-term success of iCCM in Mozambique, this article addresses whether the current CHW programme exhibits characteristics that facilitate or impede its sustainability. METHODOLOGY: We undertook a qualitative case study based on document review (n = 54) and key informant interviews (n = 21) with respondents from the Ministry of Health (MOH), multilateral and bilateral agencies and non-governmental organizations (NGOs) in Maputo in 2012. Interviews were mostly undertaken in Portuguese and all were coded using NVivo. A sustainability framework guided thematic analysis according to nine domains: strategic planning, organizational capacity, programme adaptation, programme monitoring and evaluation, communications, funding stability, political support, partnerships and public health impact. RESULTS: Government commitment was high, with the MOH leading a consultative process in Maputo and facilitating successful technical coordination. The MOH made strategic decisions to pay CHWs, authorize their prescribing abilities, foster guidance development, support operational planning and incorporate previously excluded old CHWs. Nonetheless, policy negotiations excluded certain key actors and uncertainty remains about CHW integration into the civil service and their long-term retention. In addition, reliance on NGOs and donor funding has led to geographic distortions in scaling up, alongside challenges in harmonization. Finally, dependence on external funding, when both external and government funding are declining, may hamper sustainability. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis represents a nuanced assessment of the various domains that influence CHW programme sustainability, highlighting strategic areas such as CHW payment and programme financing. These organizational and contextual determinants of sustainability are central to CHW programme strengthening and iCCM policy support.

Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of the RTS,S/AS02A Malaria Vaccine in Mozambican Children

Sacarlal J , Aide P Aponte J J Renom M Leach A Mandomando I Lievens M Bassat Q Lafuente S Macete E Veke J (2009), J Infect Dis, 200(3), 329-336

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Abstract Background We previously reported that the RTS,S/AS02A vaccine had an acceptable safety profile, was immunogenic, and demonstrated efficacy against Plasmodium falciparum malaria disease for 21 months. Methods We conducted a randomized, controlled, phase 2b trial of RTS,S/AS02A in 2022 Mozambican children aged 1–4 years. We now report safety results for all randomized subjects and vaccine efficacy (VE) findings for children in the Manhiça area over the 45-month surveillance period. Results During the surveillance period, the VE(2.5–45) (VE over months 2.5–45 of surveillance) against a first or only episode of clinical malaria disease was 30.5% (95% confidence interval [CI], 18.9%–40.4%; P <.001 ), and the VE(2.5–45) against all episodes was 25.6% (95% CI, 11.9%–37.1%; P <.001). When the same period was considered, the VE(2.5–45) for subjects protected against severe malaria was 38.3% (95% CI, 3.4%–61.3%; P = .045). At study month 45, the prevalence of P. falciparum was 34% lower in the RTS,S/AS02A group than in the control group (66 [12.2%] of 541 patients vs 101 [18.5%] of 547 patients) (P = .004). Conclusion These results show evidence that RTS,S/AS02A maintained protection during the 45-month surveillance period, and they highlight the feasibility of developing an effective vaccine against malaria. In combination with other malaria-control measures, such a vaccine could greatly contribute to reducing the intolerable global burden of this disease. Trial registration identifiers NCT00197041 and NCT00323622.

Is the Role of Physicians Really Evolving Due to Non-physician Clinicians Predominance in Staff Makeup in Sub-Saharan African Health Systems?

Sidat M , (2016), Int J Health Policy Manag , 5(12), 725–727

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Health workforce shortages in Sub-Saharan Africa are widely recognized, particularly of physicians, leading the training and deployment of Non-physician clinicians (NPCs). The paper by Eyal et al provides interesting and legitimate viewpoints on evolving role of physicians in context of decisive increase of NPCss in Sub-Saharan Africa. Certainly, in short or mid-term, NPCs will continue to be a proxy solution and a valuable alternative to overcome physicians shortages in sub-Saharan Africa. Indeed, NPCs have an important role at primary healthcare (PHC) level. Physicians at PHC level can certainly have all different roles that were suggested by Eyal et al, including those not directly related to healthcare provision. However, at secondary and higher levels of healthcare, physicians would assume other roles that are mainly related to patient clinical care. Thus, attempting to generalize the role of physicians without taking into account the context where they will work would be not entirely appropriate. It is true that often physicians start the professional carriers at PHC level and progress to other levels of healthcare particularly after clinical post-graduation training. Nevertheless, the training programs offered by medical institutions in sub-Saharan Africa need to be periodically reviewed and take into account professional and occupational roles physicians would take in context of evolving health systems in sub-Saharan Africa.

Analysis of trauma admission data at an urban hospital in Maputo, Mozambique

Taibo C , Sidat M , Folgosa E , Moon D T Joaquim A O Machado R C Merchant A McQueen K (2016), Int J Emerg Med, 9(6), 1-7

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Background Trauma is a major public health concern. Worldwide, injuries resulted in 4.8 million deaths in 2013, an increase of 11 % since 1990. The majority of deaths from trauma in low-and middle-income countries occur in a pre-hospital setting. Morbidity from trauma contributes significantly to disability in these countries. Mozambique has experienced a rise in injury-related morbidity and mortality. Efforts are underway to prioritize surgical and anesthesiology care in the post-2015 Global Surgery agenda that will build on momentum of the Millennium Development Goals. Injury surveillance remains vital to defining priorities and implementing policy changes. Methods We performed a cross-sectional study between June and September, 2010 at the Hospital Central de Maputo (HCM). Data were collected on all patients admitted to the HCM emergency surgical services with a diagnosis of trauma. We describe patient characteristics and mechanism of traumatic injury by calculating simple proportions (for dichotomous or categorical variables) or medians with interquartile ranges (IQR) for continuous variables. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to estimate the mechanisms of trauma most associated with alcohol consumption. Results A total of 517 patients were approached for inclusion in this study. Of these, 441 (91.5 %) participants were followed from admission until discharge. Three hundred twenty-four participants (73.5 %) were male. The most common age group was 20–29 years old. The three principal mechanisms of injury were road traffic injury, fighting, and falls, accounting for 74 % of injuries recorded. Traumatic injury involving alcohol consumption was nine times more likely to occur at a recreation/sporting event (OR 9.0, 95 % CI 3.01–27.13, p ≤ 0.0001). Conclusions As Mozambique prepares to respond to the post-2015 international development agenda, urgent action is required to scale-up its national injury surveillance networks. Injury prevention efforts in Mozambique should focus attention on improving road safety regulations and their implementation, as well as on interventions targeting violence reduction and the reduction of alcohol consumption at sporting events. Keywords Trauma Injury Sub-Saharan Africa Mozambique

System and market failures: the unavailability of magnesium sulphate for the treatment of eclampsia and pre-eclampsia in Mozambique and Zimbabwe

Sevene E , Mariano A , Cliff J , Lewin S Woelk G Oxman D Matinhure S Fernandes B Daniels K (2005), BMJ, 331(7519), 765–769

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Low cost and effective drugs, such as magnesium sulphate, need to be included in initiatives to improve access to essential medicines in Africa

Swine, human or avian influenza viruses differentially activates porcine dendritic cells cytokine profile

(2013), Vet Immunol Immunopathol, 154(1-2), 25-35

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Swine influenza virus (SwIV) is considered a zoonosis and the fact that swine may act as an intermediate reservoir for avian influenza virus, potentially infectious for humans, high- lights its relevance and the need to understand the interaction of different influenza viruses with the porcine immune system. Thus, in vitro porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cell (poBMDCs) were infected with a circulating SwIV A/Swine/Spain/SF32071/2007(H3N2), 2009 human pandemic influenza virus A/Catalonia/63/2009(H1N1), low pathogenic avian influenza virus (LPAIV) A/Anas plathyrhynchos/Spain/1877/2009(aH7N2) or high pathogenic avian influenza virus (HPAIV) A/Chicken/Italy/5093/1999(aH7N1). Swine influenza virus H3N2 infection induced an increase of SLA-I and CD80/86 at 16 and 24 h post infection (hpi), whereas the other viruses did not. All viruses induced gene expression of NF-􏰀B, TGF-ˇ, IFN-ˇ and IL-10 at the mRNA level in swine poBMDCs to different extents and in a time-dependent manner. All viruses induced the secretion of IL-12 mostly at 24 hpi whereas IL-18 was detected at all tested times. Only swH3N2 induced IFN-􏰂 in a time- dependent manner. Swine H3N2, aH7N2 and aH7N1 induced secretion of TNF-􏰂 also in a time-dependent manner. Inhibition of NF-􏰃B resulted in a decrease of IFN-􏰂 and IL-12 secretion by swH3N2-infected poBMDC at 24 hpi, suggesting a role of this transcription fac- tor in the synthesis of these cytokines. Altogether, these data might help in understanding the relationship between influenza viruses and porcine dendritic cells in the innate immune response in swine controlled through soluble mediators and transcription factors.

Review: Influenza virus in pigs

(2013), Mol Immunol., 55(3-4), 200-11

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